First Impression – The image of YOU in other’s mind

  1. Punctuation marks are conventional signs to read, write and speak a sentence clearly or without any ambiguity.

Following are some punctuation marks:

1. Period / Full Stop (.)

2. Exclamation Mark (!)

3. Question Mark (?)

4. Comma (,)

5. Semicolon (;)

6. Colon (:)

7. Apostrophe ( ’ )

8. Double Inverted Comma (“  ”)

9. Single inverted Comma (‘  ’)

10. Parentheses ( )

11. Bracket [ ] (Square brackets)

12. Braces { } (Curly brackets)

13. Hyphen (-)

14. Dash (–)

15. Ellipsis (….)

16. Swung dash (~)

17. at        (@)

18. Backslash (\)

19. Forward Slash (/)

A. Terminal Punctuation Marks: These are used to end the sentence.

     1.  Period / Full Stop (.) – It is used at the end of the Declarative Sentences and the Imperative Sentences. Ex: You live here.  We had four friends. They don’t know him. Ex: Please don’t beat around the bush.  Let me do it.

     2. Exclamation Mark (!)- It is used to convey strong emotion.

Ex: I know you very well.     I know you very well!  (Sarcasm)

Ex: I am happy to see you.   I am happy to see you! (Excitement)

Ex: Ouch! You stepped on my foot! (Pain)

Ex:  Bravo! You won the game! (Weldone)

Ex: Listen! Come on time otherwise you will be fired! (Anger)

     3. Question Mark (?) – It is used at the end of the interrogative sentences.

Ex: Do you know him?

Ex: If he comes today, will you go with him?

Ex: Where do you live?

B.  Pauses: It is used to stop briefly while reading and then continue reading.

     4. Comma (,) –

           – Separate items in a list:

                        Ex: I went supermarket to buy chocolates, milk, sugar, and tamarind

Ex: Why don’t you go on your work, meet some people, and follow your dreams to overcome this boredom?

         -Separate words (unfortunately, sadly, fortunately, Finally) that are not part of the sentence.

Ex: Fortunately, I qualified in the test in my first attempt.

Ex: Sadly, I could not meet her.

         -Separate linking words (in fact, however, so, therefore, eventually)

Ex: She has been preparing for the exam since 2020. Eventually, She could make it happen.

Ex: This is a great book. In fact, it is one of the best I have ever read.

Ex: I told her to join us in the gym. She, however, has some different plans.

        -To join clauses:

Ex: When I came home, she was busy with her toys. (Dependent – Independent Clause

Ex: I was so happy when I participated in the event. (Independent – Dependent Clause)

Ex: They invited him for the party, but(we can use FANBOYS here) he didn’t go. (Independent – independent clauses)

   5. Semicolon (;) –

       -To join two independent clauses in place of comma and a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS- For, And, Nor, But, Or, yet, So). It must give clear      meaning of the sentence.

Ex: However they were planning to go Mumbai, (;  – wrong) but they could not make it possible.

      -Use a semicolon to replace a full stop between related sentences when the second sentence starts with either a conjunctive adverb or a transitional expression ( accordingly, otherwise, thus, besides, for instance, however, furthermore, therefore)

Ex: Shikha is a good student; moreover, she also plays cricket.

Ex: Navi works all day; nevertheless, she gives time to her family.

     -Semicolon is used to replace comma when items in series are long:

Ex: My friend is intelligent, studious, and helpful; but we rarely meet.

  6. Colon (:)- Colon is used to make a list.

Ex: Grocery items: Vegetables, Mustard Oil, Rice, Flour, Sugar.

Ex: Our business deals in: making new products, launching them, and making profits.

Ex: Let me tell you one thing: if you don’t come for the party, I will never meet you again.

  7. Apostrophe (’): Apostrophe has three uses:

-To form possessive nouns.

Ex: We rode by my friend’s car.  Children’s habit makes them vibrant.

Ex: Boys’ behavior matters the most in making a culture. Girls’ attitude helps her to resist any mishap with her.

-To show omission of letters.

Ex: Does not = Don’t         Will not = Won’t     I am = I’m             You are = You’re

-To form plurals of letters, numbers, and symbols


Singular Plural Singular Plural
A Two A’s= A A 5 Two 5’s = 5 5
* Five *’s= ***** P Two P’s = P P


   8. Double Inverted Comma (“ ”)

      -It is used to indicate direct speech.

Ex: Sonam Said, “I am fine.”     I said, “Sit down on the chair.”


   9. Use of Single Inverted Comma (‘ ’)

-For emphasis a word or a phrase, either to show clarity or sometimes confusion.

Ex: They sell ‘fresh and seasonal’ fruits.

-It is also used for indicating beginning and ending of a direct speech.

Ex: They told, ‘It is better to stay there.’

     -To show irony, inaccuracy or skepticism.

Ex: She is intelligent but ‘snobbish.’

-To show a title of something.

Ex: Her book ‘The Five Senses’ sold with high demand.

 10. Parenthesis ()- To show information

Ex: When I was going there, I found my school, colleagues (new) and institutions.

11.  Bracket []-

-Use brackets to insert the words of own.

Ex: He said, “Sally [My friend] is coming today.”

    -To insert stage direction into a play.

Ex: [Macbeth enters]

[Romeo weeps over Juliet’s body]

-To insert explanation, corrections, clarifications or comments

 12. Braces {} –

    -Braces are used to group items.

A= {a,b,c,d…}

Grocery = {Potatoes, Tomatoes, Chilly, ….}

13. Hyphen (-) – Hyphen is used to join two words.

Ex:- Root-word, Self-employed, Short-term, old-fashioned

14. Dash (–) – longer than hyphen and it is used to introduce a list and to show that words or letters are missing.

Ex: Planet’s name – Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Venus

Ex:  I will take care —— my friend. (of, off)

15. Ellipsis (…….) — It is used to show the incomplete words or parts of the statement.

16. Swung Dash (~) — It is used to omit a word that has already been used.

17. at ( @ ) — It is used to show that something is happening at a certain rate or time.

18. Back Slash ( \ ) — It is used for coding in computer programming. 

19. Forward Slash ( / ) — It is used to represent ‘OR’ and ‘Per’ and Fraction

Ex: Dear Madam / Sir — Madam or Sir

Ex: Price — 67 / Kg

Ex:  2/7, 6/8, 9/2

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